Throughout his campaign against the Persians, Alexander the Great remained aware of the many troubles plaguing his homeland of Macedon. With little hopes of achieving success in the city-states, Polyperchon turned northward, seeking the support of Olympias in Epirus, eventually hoping to march on Macedon, overthrow Philip II and install Alexander IV as king. Seleucus adds Lysimachus' realm to his own empire, but is killed almost immediately after by Ptolemy Keraunos. Cassander was a man of literary taste, but violent and ambitious. Seleucus was the son of Antiochus, a general of Philip II of Macedonia, the father of Alexander the Great. In 311 BC Antigonus made peace with Cassander, Lysimachus and Ptolemy, which gave him an opportunity to deal with Seleucus. As a result of the victory, he gained control of Syria and Cilicia. Seleucid Empire (321-64 BC) Area of Modern Israel, Syria, Turkey; Cassander (319-168 BC) Area of Modern Greece. Plutarch did not give credence to the poison rumor. In 302 when the second alliance between Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus was made, Lysimachus, reinforced by troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little resistance. See more. Black Africans in the British Imagination: English Narratives of the... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Lysimachus was born in circa 360 BC, to a family of Thessalian Greek stock. This time Lysimachus added to his possessions the Hellespont coast. However, the rumor of poisoning, regardless of any direct evidence, brought into the conversation the names of Cassander, his brother Iolaus, Antipater, and even Aristotle. In 315 BC, Lysimachus joined Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus against Antigonus, who, however, diverted his attention by stirring up Thracian and Scythian tribes against him. In his youth, Cassander was taught by the philosopher Aristotle at the Lyceum in Macedonia.He was educated alongside Alexander the Great in a group that included Hephaestion, Ptolemy and Lysimachus. He had always been a sickly child, and it was a Macedonian custom that a boy had to kill a wild boar  without a net to gain the privilege of reclining at a table as an adult. He founded a number of famous cities, among them Antioch on the Orontes, Laodicea, Seleucia, Edessa, and Beroea. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Added to the defeat of Eumenes, this abandonment did not help Olympias, Roxanne, and the young Alexander who were now isolated at Pydna. He was 13 (possibly 14) and she was only 30. In 281 BC, Lysimachus crossed the Hellespont into Lydia and at the decisive Battle of Corupedium was killed. Antigonus summoned Demetrius back from Greece. She despised Antipater, and he referred to her as a "sharp-to… They would have three children, Philip, Alexander, and Antipater; none of them would survive to follow in their father’s footsteps. Antipater and Cassander realized that their tenuous hold on Greece and Macedonia was not safe. Meanwhile, although there was no child to consider, Roxanne, to affirm her status as Alexander’s only wife, poisoned Darius’s daughter (and Alexander’s wife) Stateira and threw her body into a well - she also killed the sister Drypetis for no apparent reason. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Early history. Alliances were made, and alliances were broken. As a result of the victory, he gained control of Syria and Cilicia. Conflicts among the Diadochi saw Antigonus proclaiming himself as king in 306 BC, only to be followed by Ptolemy, Cassander, Lysimachus and Seleucus. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Last modified June 23, 2016. When Antigonus returned from the eastern provinces intending to reunite Alexander’s empire under his own sovereignty, Cassander joined forces with Ptolemy I, Seleucus, and Lysimachus (rulers of Egypt, Babylon, and Thrace, respectively) to oppose him. In 309 BC, he founded Lysimachia in a … Seleucus ruled not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire. Cassander King of Macedonia. Related Content n 315 BC, Lysimachus joined Cassander, Ptolemy I Soter and Seleucus I Nicator against Antigonus I Monophthalmus, who, however, diverted his attention by stirring up Thracian and Scythian tribes against him. Early history. https://www.ancient.eu/Cassander/. Unfortunately, without a surviving heir to carry on, his beloved Macedon fell to an enemy, Demetrius. To gain influence in Cassander's Greek backyard, Antigonus declared the Freedom of the Greek city States . Lysimachus led an allied army into Asia Minor, with a large contingent provided by Cassander. All the while, he continued to insist that Antipater had given him the regency, not Cassander. He met little resistance in seizing control of much of western Asia Minor and, in the following spring (301 BCE ) was joined by Seleucus. Their plan was to take their main army from Macedonian and Thrace into Asia Minor, where they hoped to meet up with Seleucus, whose army included a large number of elephants. He took the initiative in forging a coalition among Ptolemy, Lysimachus (the ruler of Thrace), and Cassander (who laid claim to Macedonia) against Antigonus, whose desire to become the ruler of the whole of Alexander's empire was a threat to them all. [6] Lysimachus and his brothers grew up with the status of Macedonians; all these brothers enjoyed with Lysimachus prominent positions in Alexander’s circle[6] and, like him, were educated at the Macedonian court in Pella. Lysimachus left Pyrrhus in possession of Macedonia with the title of king for around seven months before Lysimachus invaded. Cassander and Lysimachus allied themselves with Ptolemy, and Seleucus took the opportunity to win more territory in the East. In 317 BCE, to ensure his hold on the region, the confident Cassander established a base at Pegeus, southwest of Athens. Later, in 318 BCE, when tensions with Polyperchon escalated, Cassander negotiated with the city, restoring its old oligarchy. Lysimachus (Greek: Λυσίμαχος, Lysimachos; c. 360 BC – 281 BC) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i.e. Cassander continued his fight against Antigonus from 315 to 311 BCE, finally reaching a tenuous peace agreement. In 302 BCE, however, with support from Cassander, Ptolemy & Seleucus, Lysimachus took the initiative in attacking Antigonus, who had tried to destabilize Thrace. In 301 BC, Lysimachus and Seleucus defeated Antigonus and Demetrius. Then Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus also assumed that title. "Seleucus had 72 satraps under him [7], so vast was the territory he ruled. Lysimachus as horned Alexander. His father was a nobleman of high rank who was an intimate friend of Philip II of Macedon, who shared in Philip II’s councils and became a favourite in the Argead court. The struggle between the two escalated, centering on the city-state of Athens. The victors divided the lands of their enemy among themselves and Seleucus gained … C. when the second alliance between Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus was made, Lysimachus, reinforced by troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little resistance. After some days his body was found on the field, protected from birds of prey by his faithful dog. [3][4] He was the second son of Agathocles[5] and his wife; there is some indication in the historical sources that this wife was perhaps named Arsinoe, and that Lysimachus' paternal grandfather may have been called Alcimachus. Cassander, himself, would die in 297 BCE, and for a while, Macedon was left stable. It was hoped that Demetrius would be recalled from Greece to take part in this final battle. In 315 BC, Lysimachus joined Cassander, Ptolemy I Soter and Seleucus I Nicator against Antigonus I Monophthalmus, who, however, diverted his attention by stirring up Thracian and Scythian tribes against him. His immediate reaction was to laugh. In 294 BC, Demetrius seized Macedon from the feuding sons of Cassander. Oddly, it would center on another possible claimant to the throne. Ptolemy Empire (323-31 BC) Area of modern Egypt ; Ptolemy Empire Ends when Rome conquers Egypt in 31 BC ; Antony/Cleopatra commit suicide 30 extincting the Ptolemy empire. After the death of Alexander the Great, there were continual power struggles, so by 301 BC, the empire was divided into four major areas controlled by Greek generals: Macedonia - Cassander Asia Minor - Lysimachus Syria - Seleucus Egypt - Ptolemy The two areas that interest us as Bible students are those under the Seleucid and Ptolemaic Dynasties. Many of the cities of Asia Minor revolted, and his most trusted friends deserted him. In his youth, Cassander was taught by the philosopher Aristotle at the Lyceum in Macedonia.He was educated alongside Alexander the Great in a group that included Hephaestion, Ptolemy and Lysimachus. [7][8], The historian Justin relates the story that Lysimachus smuggled poison to a person Alexander had condemned to a slow death and was himself thrown to a lion as punishment, but overcame the beast with his bare hands and became one of Alexander's favorites. In 302 BC, Lysimachus joined a renewed alliance against Antigonus. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Cassander's territory did not border that of Antiochus, but Polyperchon, who allied himself with Antiochus, tried to raise a rebellion in Greece. In 314, the Third Diadoch War broke out. "Cassander." However, he managed to consolidate his power in the east of his territories, suppressing a revolt of the cities on the Black Sea coast. While these held office, Cassander, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus came to terms with Antigonus and made a treaty. The confederate princes—Ptolemy, Cassander, Lysimachus, and Seleucus—then agreed to allow Antigonus to claim as his dominion all Asia Minor, until the young Alexander should be old enough to reign. When Antipater and Cassander returned to Macedon, Antigonus gathered his forces and defeated Eumenes in 321 BCE. [14] However, he managed to consolidate his power in the east of his territories, suppressing a revolt of the cities on the Black Sea coast.[11]. Seleucus joined him in 301, and at the battle of Ipsus Antigonus was … Lysimachus joined with Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus in a final attempt to defeat Antigonus and Demetrius. Map of the Successor Kingdoms, c. 303 BCEby Javierfv1212 (Public Domain). And, while the commander Perdiccas possessed both the king’s signet ring and body - the commander Ptolemy would later kidnap the body - no one had been named as either the successor or heir; however, it was accepted that Alexander’s child by Roxanne, the future Alexander IV, would one day rule. (Bucephala / Public Domain ) The two candidates most eligible to succeed Alexander were his elder half-brother, Philip III Arrhidaeus, and his soon-to-be born son by Roxana, … Antigonus has sought Antipater’s help after he and Perdiccas argued - Antigonus had refused to help the Perdiccas’ ally Eumenes in a fight to retain his territory. Macedonia and Greece were subject to Cassander. From 312 BC, Seleucus ruthlessly expanded his dominions and eventually conquered the Persian and Median lands. Lysimachus definition, Macedonian general: king of Thrace 306–281. Seleucid Empire (321-64 BC) Area of Modern Israel, Syria, Turkey; Cassander (319-168 BC) Area of Modern Greece. On the approach of Antigonus he retired into winter quarters near Heraclea, marrying its widowed queen Amastris, a Persian princess. After Alexander’s death, the empire he had so fearlessly built fell into chaos. This latter cause was something Olympias wholeheartedly believed. In 302 BC, Lysimachus joined a renewed alliance against Antigonus. In 314, the Third Diadoch War broke out. Ptolemy had possession of Egypt, with the greater part of Africa, Cyprus, and Phrenicia. By 306 BC, he'd taken the title "King of Thrace". He is eager to pass knowledge on to his students. As the conqueror had died without leaving behind an adult heir, the Macedonian Empire faced a succession crisis. Something that may have influenced Antipater’s decision comes from Cassander’s childhood. On the approach of Antigonus he retired into winter quarters near Heraclea, marry ing its widowed queen Amastris, a Persian princess. Some coins issued during Lysimachus's appointment had his image on one side and a lion on the other. Born in Greece as the son of Antipater, the regent of Macedon and Greece in the absence of Alexander the Great, he ruled beside his father eventually battling against the commander Polyperchon for supremacy in Greece. According to their agreement, Antigonus lost control of much of his veteran army; they were replaced by newer recruits. Seleucus participated in the conquest of the Persian empire as one of Alexander’s officers, and in 326 bce he commanded the Macedonian infantry against King Porus of India in battle on the Hydaspes River. However, Cassander wisely grew to be suspicious of the old commander’s intentions. In 281 he won Asia Minor from Lysimachus. In 301 BC, Lysimachus and Seleucus defeated Antigonus and Demetrius. was a member of Alexander's Companion cavalry who particularly distinguished himself in India. Ptolemy Empire (323-31 BC) Area of modern Egypt ; Ptolemy Empire Ends when Rome conquers Egypt in 31 BC ; Antony/Cleopatra commit suicide 30 extincting the Ptolemy empire. During the struggle of the Diadochi for power, Lysimachus joined a coalition of Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Cassander in 315 and fought against Antigonus. [11], In 315 BC, Lysimachus joined Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus against Antigonus, who, however, diverted his attention by stirring up Thracian and Scythian tribes against him. With little recourse, they looked to the other commanders for support eventually forming an alliance with Antigonus the One-eyed. Wasson, D. L. (2016, June 23). When Antigonus' son Demetrius I renewed hostilities (297 BC), during his absence in Greece, Lysimachus seized his towns in Asia Minor, but in 294 BC concluded a peace whereby Demetrius was recognized as ruler of Macedonia. 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