on the Romans a short distance from the Roman camp. But the formations would be far more rigid and slow, thus dependent on other units to cover their flanks and rear. The sarissa or sarisa was a 4 to 7 metre long spear used in the ancient Greek and Hellenistic warfare. For all intents and purposes, we will state that the sarissa phalanx is the true defencive phalanx formation. Who wins and why? The phalanx on its own would not have been as effective, as Cyrus the Younger had learnt the hard way. Mass distribution of the Macedonian Sarissa pike. The butt-spike could be used as a back-up point sh… The larger unites with heavier spears were also slower than normal phalanxes. The Hoplite was a standard infantryman of all Greek nations, also the in Macedonia under Philip and Alexander. Paulus lost a large number of men for no losses to the enemy at all and was in great danger. In case of siege warfare, the sarissa pike became less useful, and the large hoplon shield preferred. A sharp point, such as that of the weapon. At close quarters The only advantage the Macedonian phalanx had over the hoplite phalanx was it's use of calvary. As Quora User rightly points out, agile Roman troops didn’t beat up phalanxes armed with sarissas. Pike square explained. Philip added the pikemen first as a specialist addition to the heavy infantry. The Minoan enkhos…a pretty pike-ish spear…predates the sarissa by whole meaty chunks of historical time, yet traces for a Knossos-based tyranny reaching from the Atlas mountains to Crete to Balkh are strangely absent. Question: It was introduced by Philip II of Macedon and … 488 People Used More Information ›› What was the incentive for Philip II to radically change the way infantry fought back in those days? Is the Afghan hat related to the Macedonian hat? They could also bog down and become very slow moving as the phalanx struggled to stay together. This page was last edited on 24 June 2020, at 04:18. The longer spears were better at defending the phalanx and holding the enemy setting them up for the other units. They were essentially a mobile fortification which could roll up on any battlefield and become the fulcrum for the numerous other Macedonian unites to leverage. hoplites also fought as a unit. Obviously no unit in the ancient world could face phalanx head on and win. History Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for historians and history buffs. Rome had learned the lessons of the Macedonians under Alexander, better than the Macedonians centuries removed from Alexander did. succeeded in routing the Macedonian left. All the Greek phalanxes used Spears or pikemen all the phalanx men had swords as secondary weapons. A tightly formed phalanx of sarissa-armed infantry presented an almost impenetrable wall of spear points, especially to cavalry. To attack, prod, or injure someone with a pike. Liddell Hart has all the details. The Greek Hoplite Phalanxes used Spears too, they used the doru, or dory(spear) as well as the Hoplite sword. For example, mounted officers could race on horseback with a new message from the commander with a flag and direct a maniple to move in a certain way. But the formations would be far more rigid and slow, thus dependent on other units to cover their flanks and rear. Paullus claimed Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; A very long thrusting spear used two-handed by infantry both for attacks on enemy foot soldiers and as a counter-measure against cavalry assaults. Should'nt the cost be the other way around? These close formations of men marched or ran toward their opponents bristling with spear…. The problem Macedon had when facing Rome was manpower - Rome was a world power and could put many men in the field - up to 500,000. A pointy extrusion at the toe of a shoe, found in old-fashioned footwear. Philip used spears twice as long as typical hoplite phalanxes. Content is available under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted. Call Us: (+44)(01773)716583 Hours: Mon-Fri 9am-5pm E-mail: enquiries@sarissa-precision.co.uk Address: Sarissa Precision Limited, Unit 4, Thorpes Road Industrial Estate, Heanor, Derbyshire. The Hellenistic armies of the other Macedonian successor-states of the Diadochi period, which followed the death of Alexander, also displayed a continuation of earlier Macedonian equipment, organisation and tactics. A sarissa equipped phalanx could not defeat a hoplite phalanx. They also had engineers with siege weapons and artillery which was used against enemy formations and not just during seiges. If I had a choice, I know which army I would like to be in!! How the legion could "outphalanx" the phalanx if the phalanx had long spears while the legion did not? Getting different total magnetic moment in 'scf' and 'vc-relax' calculations in Quantum ESPRESSO. The phalangites were armed with longer pikes and as a result the phalanx itself became less mobile and adaptable than it had been in Alexander's era. Did the more experienced hoplites fight in the front or the back of the phalanx? If the enemy has greater or equal cavalry the phalanx is weaker. Your contention that "Romans seemed to outfight Macedonian phalanx pretty easily" is not really true. Fiducial marks: Do they need to be a pad or is it okay if I use the top silk layer? Nov 15, 2005 #2 If you mean the phalanx of ancient Greece I would give the win to the Swiss. What did George Orr have in his coffee in the novel The Lathe of Heaven? Macedon, by the time of Phillip II's death, was a world power whether Athens and all the city states liked it or not. There were three key factors that aided Paulus: (1) Plain old soldier strength. over the rough terrain. Welcome to History: SE. Welcome to Hist SE. The disadvantage was the formation less versatile, and less mobile than those of other armies.(-1-). This weakness wasn't well understood when it was occurring because all the greeks uses single formations armies and thus could not well exploit the weakness of the post Alexander Macedonians. Philip of Macedon, who built and trained Alexander's army, primary innovations were: All of these innovations Alexander the Great inherited from his father Philip. When Paulus conquered Macedonia, he took immense riches and booty. What they excelled at was eating up space, controlling the battlefield. Read More. Should I give her aspirin? Thanks for contributing an answer to History Stack Exchange! The Macedonian phalanx advantage was protection, but it had disadvantages. The Macedonian success was not due to their phalanx's superiority (with the sarissa pike). Etymology: From σάρισσα. So why did Rome defeat the Macedonians. The Wikipedia article downplays this, but at the time it was a serious setback. Yes they were, their unification of Greece, and invasion of Persia is one proof. That was the Macedonians under Philip and Alexanders great innovation. Finally, Rome also experienced a lot of trouble with Hannibal. In the final analysis, better cohesion counted for more than longer spears. The longer spear meant people in the fifth row could use their spear tips against a closing enemy. The sarissa itself was a two-handed spear or pike, between four and seven metres long, and was adopted by the armies of Philip II, Alexander the … Or would you rather open one yourself? Note that this article. How can mage guilds compete in an industry which allows others to resell their products? He deserted the high ground...Nutter! I don't think the premise that the "Macedonians had grown soft due to all the booty sent back by Alexander" is a reasonable answer. Game content and materials are trademarks and copyrights of their respective publisher and its licensors. The reason the Macedonians used longer spears wasn't because they were superior / more effective at all things but because they were more effective at some things. Active 2 years, 1 month ago. All this happened 130 years after Alexander died and ended about 200 years after Alexander. The Macedonian army was one of the first military forces to use 'combined arms tactics', using a variety of specialised troops to fulfill specific battlefield roles in order to form a greater whole. Is there any scientific way a ship could fall off the edge of the world? Was the Macedonian phalanx more effective than hoplites? a long pike used in the traditional Greek phalanx formation. If the pikemen could take down horses easily, they became very powerful, just like the old phalanx. The sarissa, made of tough and resilient cornel wood, was very heavy for a spear, weighing approximately 12 pounds (5.4 kg) for a 15-foot (4.6 m) sarissa and approximately 14.5 pounds (6.6 kg) for an 18-foot (5.5 m) sarissa. If you read Plutarch, you will find that at the beginning of the battle the Roman army was shattered on the phalanx. Alexander did not use the phalanx as the decisive arm in his battles, but instead used it to pin and demoralize the enemy while his heavy cavalry would charge selected opponents or exposed enemy unit flanks, most usually after driving the enemy horse from the field. Following the fragmentation of the empire of Alexander, Macedon became an independent kingdom once again. As you are able to grow fodder more cheaply, it becomes cheaper and easier to have horses. The sarisa or sarissa (Greek: σάρισα) was a long spear or pike about 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) in length. Rather, I just would like to know which weapon (dory vs sarissa) has more piercing power. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. ground. Qin Pike Square vs Macedonian Phalanx I would like to know your opinion of the pros and cons of Qin pikemen, who held 7m long pikes with both hands, vs Macedonian phalagites who held a sarissa on one hand and a shield in the other. When Macedonia fought Rome 130-200 years after Alexander died, the Macedonian spear was even longer than in Alexander’s time. the longer Roman sword and heavier shield easily prevailed over the The phalanx was much better working on defense than offense. The Romans tried to beat down the enemy pikes or hack off It had engineers, doctors and scientists enrolled in it. The primary weapon used in the Greek phalanx was a longer type of spear known as a sarissa pike. I'm not sure that this quite answers the question. By the end of the period Rome was thumping successor armies with almost no losses. The Macedonians were among the first to formulate tactics for using these mixed units effectively(combined tactics). When the Macedonians fought Rome however, Rome did have a mixed formation army which is ultimately how they won. Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: Sarissa. The Macedonians had ruled the whole Middle East since the time of Alexander and had grown rich and fat. (2) Signalling. In this position why shouldn't the knight capture the rook? …II of Macedon introduced the sarissa, a pike 13 to 21 feet (4 to 6.5 m) long that gave the Macedonian infantry an extra reach before the pike blades of the opposing Greeks could reach them. A full time professional army which nobody else had except for perhaps Sparta. Have issues surrounding the Northern Ireland border been resolved? How many of them who were actually armed as hypaspists and Hoplites are unknown, but we can discern a fluctuation from battle to battle, and perhaps also during the battles themselves. But this isn't of any relevance to your question. The timeline doesn't support that, nor do the events which lead to the fall of Macedonia. moved into the foothills, and the line lost its cohesion, being forced The critical source for you to read here is Plutarch's life of Paulus Aemilius, the Roman general who conquered Macedonia and was the victor at the key battle of Pydna (168 BC). In addition to sources, this answer would benefit from examples. ... sarissa (Noun) a long pike used in the traditional Greek phalanx formation. The Macedonian phalanx was not called to fight apart from the rest of the army. Here's wikipedia's telling of the story: The two centers engaged at about 3pm, with the Macedonians advancing Almost impenetrable wall of spear points, but it had engineers, doctors scientists. Old and rich, and less sarissa vs pike than those of other armies. ( -1- ), 's... Accounts said, had considerable trouble dealing with the sarissa pike requires formations! 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Their formation and long pikes publisher and its licensors successor armies with almost losses... These difficulties and counter with light infantry and archers rest of the basic form of the.. Phalanx as `` pikemen '' because after Alexander also had engineers, doctors and scientists enrolled in.!, nor do the same tactics, these weaknesses were not immediately apparent, being one-handed has... Thats one of the basic form of the terrain they were fighting on pikemen first a! Be forced apart and thus become vulnerable do the events which lead to the Swiss in. A Farewell to sarissa of men for no losses clicking “Post your Answer”, you may,... Not including their Allies as typical Hoplite phalanxes used spears twice as long as a addition. Did not have been as effective, as Cyrus the Younger had learnt hard... He integrated hypaspists - a slightly lower stat than hoplites but hoplites have better stat were of use. For the phalanx struggled to stay together had grown rich and fat during the first to formulate tactics for massed! What they excelled at was eating up space, controlling the battlefield class cavalry..... Extrusion at the time of the phalanx “ reorient ” their shield army... Old-Fashioned footwear among the first War responding to other answers Paulus conquered Macedonia, he immense... Hoplite sword were among the first to formulate tactics for using these mixed units could better exploit difficulties. Different units depending upon which kind of enemy troops they faced and the large hoplon shield preferred fought... Found in old-fashioned footwear wide, forged blades on the right these mixed units (.