The incident would haunt him for the remainder of his life. Thus Antipater succeeded in gaining his objects, although the Jewish state lost its independence in consequence. Search through the entire ancient history timeline. Antipater resented the order, considering it a death warrant. Antipater had wealth and power but he wanted more. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Instead, Antipater chose the commander Polyperchon because he believed his son to be too young to successfully oppose the other regents. He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. Thus, Herod was of Arab origin, although he was a practicing Jew. Although they had both been students together under Aristotle, Alexander resented the young man’s presence. Antipater was from Edom (Idumaea), the area between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. Wrong! He ruled Greece by cooperating with the League of Corinth but was unpopular because he supported oligarchic governments. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Was it malaria, an old wound, his alcoholism, or, as many believed, poisoning? Antipater had always been considered a trustworthy commander, representing Philip at Athens in 346 BCE. Although Antipater and Alexander had their differences, nothing compared to the intense dislike that existed between Antipater and Olympias. A debate as to the cause exists to this day. Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwestern Jordan), at that time the capital of the rising Arab Nabataean kingdom. Luckily, however, Antipater was not left alone for he had an army of 12,000 phalangites, 1,000 Companion cavalry, 500 light-armed cavalry, and the power to summon the militia of the Greek city-states. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Antipater had great influence in Israel and Judea during the period of Aristobulus, Hyrcanus and Pompey the Great. During a civil war in the Empire, Herod won the favor of Octavian, who later became the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar.Once he was king, Herod launched an ambitious building program, both in Jerusalem and the spectacular port city of Caesarea, named after the emperor. License. As a regent in Alexander's absence, Antipater subdued rebellions and mollified uprisings, proving his unwavering loyalty for more than a decade. To maintain authority in his absence, he left Greece and his beloved Macedon in the capable hands of Antipater as hegemon. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. While in Thrace, word of Alexander’s supposed death made its way to the Greek city of Thebes and they revolted. He also became an advisor to the Maccabean Queen Alexandra Salome. Antipater was born in 399 BCE as the son of a Macedonian nobleman named Iolaus. Antipater and Agis met at Megalopolis, a city north of Sparta. Having favored the winning side in the conflict, Antipater's star rose, especially since he cooperated with the Romans as much … an-tip'-a-ter (Antipatros): One of two envoys sent by the senate of the Jews to the Romans and Spartans (1 Maccabees 12:16; 14:22). Updates? Ancient History Encyclopedia. Herod Antipater (Greek: Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπατρος, Hērǭdēs Antipatros; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter") and is referred to as both "Herod the Tetrarch" and "King Herod" in the New Testament, although he never held the title of king. Antipater (c. 399-319 B.C.) The historian Plutarch wrote in his Greek Lives of Olympias' reaction to the incident stating that on the strength of information she received five years after her son’s death she had a “number of men put to death” and  scattered the exhumed remains of Iolaus’s body because it was he who had administered the poison (380). To a man, they swore their loyalty. Meanwhile, Antipater was being drawn into battle against Memnon, the military governor of Thrace who was seeking independence from Macedon. This son was also named Antipater and it was he who was the father of Herod the Great. Eventually, Cassander would take control of Macedon and before his own death in 297 BCE would execute not only Alexander’s wife Roxanne and son Alexander IV but also the ever-present and always outspoken Olympias. Antipater was an adherent of Hyrcanus, one of two princes who struggling to become king of Judaea. Now, with most of Greece under Macedonian control, the young king turned his sights eastward to Persia and made plans to cross the Hellespont into Asia Minor, finally fulfilling his father’s life-long dream. Alexander Sarcophogusby James Carnehan (CC BY). Unfortunately, Cassander was not named the heir. The following year he was tried for plotting against Herod and Pheroras, Herod’s brother, and was executed five days before his father’s death. Antipater (399-319): supreme commander of the Macedonian forces in Europe during the eastern campaign of Alexander the Great, later regent for Alexander's mentally unstable brother Philip III Arridaeus. Although Perdiccas possessed the king’s signet ring and took control of the body, factions soon developed. Others were also implicated; allegedly Cassander brought the poison with him from Macedon hidden in a mule’s hoof and Aristotle supposedly prepared it. One of the leading men in Macedonia at the death of Philip II in 336, he helped to secure the succession to the Macedonian throne for Philip’s son, Alexander the Great, who upon departure for the conquest of Asia (334) appointed Antipater regent in Macedonia with the title of general in Europe. Refusing to appear himself, he sent his son Cassander who made a number of valiant pleas on his father’s behalf. The tension between the two increased when Cassander unknowingly laughed at seeing a number of Persians prostrating themselves before the king - an old Persian custom called proskynesis. Antipater (ăntĭp`ətər), d. 319 B.C., Macedonian general. Antipatris was a city built by Herod the Great, and named in honor of his father, Antipater II of Judea. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Last modified June 14, 2016. Eumenes was given Cappadocia and Paphlagonia (eastern Anatolia) to rule while Thrace (northeastern Greece) went to Lysimachus; Syria was given to Selecucos I. This immense power would not go unnoticed by the ever-present and always vocal Olympias; Antipater considered her a “sharp-tongued shrew.” Her attempts to meddle in governmental affairs would eventually force Alexander to intercede. "Antipater." Antipater then took Hyrcanus with him to Aretas, who forthwith proceeded with a large army against Aristobulus, and defeated him. He achieved a major increase in status by marrying a woman from a wealthy family in Petra. It lay between Caesarea Maritima and Lydda, on the great Roman road from Caesarea to Jerusalem, and figures prominently in Roman-era history. Antipater synonyms, Antipater pronunciation, Antipater translation, English dictionary definition of Antipater. Antipater then took the side of the Macedonian generals Antigonus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy, who were opposed to the claims of Perdiccas. Antipater I the Idumaean (born 113 or 114 BCE, died 43 BCE) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. was an advisor of Alexander and commander of Alexander's European forces who served as regent from 334-323 B.C. [18.48.5] The office and rank of chiliarch was first raised to fame … Related Content From. The young king would never return. In this conflict, the Roman general Pompey intervened in Hyrcanus' favor. Corrections? 323/66 The Greek army defeats Antipater, and he retreats to Lamia. When Athens began to speak of the conditions of peace, Antipater insisted that only the victor sets the conditions and that each Greek city-state was to negotiate its own terms. Unfortunately, a serious disagreement between the two led to a once trusted commander being implicated in the suspected poisoning of one of history’s greatest leaders. The two men would never come to terms and fought bitterly over the next decade. Did he willingly participate in a conspiracy to poison Alexander?