For the outcome of depression, we restricted to scales, subscales, diagnosis, or clinical interviews for depression or more severe single symptoms related to depression, such as suicidal ideation, but excluded measurements of nonspecific symptoms, such as low energy, sleep problems, sadness, or withdrawal from social activities. Profits from micro-transactions have been substantial, with one company reporting $4 billion (US) in revenue from micro-transactions in 2017 (Makuch, Reference Makuch2018), just over half of its total revenue for the year. This paper is a summary of the review undertaken by the IGD Working Group as part of the 2015 National Academy of Sciences Sackler Colloquium on Digital Media and Developing Minds. Render date: 2020-12-24T23:01:34.851Z This study was conducted using publicly-available information and therefore did not require Institutional Board (IRB) approval. Candy Crush Saga, one of the most popular mobile social games, reports that 69% of people playing are female (Chen & Leung, Reference Chen and Leung2016). These activities, particularly massively multiplayer online role-playing games, deliver pleasure, a sense of achievement, social interaction, and an immersive experience to online gamers. ADHD medications (atomoxetine, methylphenidate) have shown reductions in gaming disorder symptoms over a 12-week period in adolescents (Park et al. We added questions relevant to reviews of epidemiological studies [25]. Full results can be found in S1 Data Extraction. Although more recent reviews had higher proportions of gaming-only measures, even recent reviews included studies that used Internet addiction questions to measure gaming disorder. "comments": true, Such bias can be preempted by completely prespecifying the five elements of an outcome (Fig 1) [10,15]. However, complete prespecification is not always possible and/or may be considered too restrictive. Methodology, An exploratory study linking psychological factors to mobile social game addiction, Gambling near-misses enhance motivation to gamble and recruit win-related brain circuitry, A national survey of online gambling behaviours, Contextual influences on mobile player experience–A game user experience model, The economics of free: Freemium games, branding and the impatience economy, Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, Internet gaming disorder: trends in prevalence 1998–2016, Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study, Pathological video game use among youths: a two-year longitudinal study, Association between internet gaming disorder or pathological video-game use and comorbid psychopathology: a comprehensive review, International Journal of Environmental Research And Public Health, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Psychobiology of the near-miss in fruit machine gambling, Online computer gaming: advice for parents and teachers, The role of context in online gaming excess and addiction: some case study evidence, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, The psychosocial impact of professional gambling, professional video gaming & eSports. Other addictive behaviours can also be associated with problematic gaming. Griffiths MD, Kuss DJ, Lopez-Fernandez O, Pontes HM (2017). PLoS ONE 15(10): Moreover, choosing specific results from multiple reported analyses from multiple data sources for a given study is a multi-dimensional problem. The consequences of internet gaming disorder. In the sensitivity analysis, one additional study [65] reported inconsistent associations in bivariable and multivariable analysis and was reported as positive in the one review that contained it. Reference King, Gainsbury, Delfabbro, Hing and Abarbanel2015). Six studies reported results that were not incorporated into any review; four of these had inconsistent or null findings. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. MDG also undertakes consultancy for various gaming companies in the area of social responsibility in gambling. A third major concern is that only one review [30] reported a systematic assessment of risk of bias using multiple domains, which has long been a best practice in conducting systematic reviews [79–83]. The average prevalence of gaming addiction across countries is estimated at 4.7% (Feng et al. There was not sufficient evidence to determine whether the condition is a unique mental disorder or the best criteria to classify it at the time the DSM-5 was published in 2013. Bias can sometimes be introduced due to methods used in the systematic review (‘meta-bias’) [12]. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session 68: 1185 – 1195. Recent decades have witnessed a surge in the number of systematic reviews conducted [8]. One review specified that it would consider only study effect sizes from multivariable analyses, classifying full associations as “…a correlation was found for both genders after multivariable analyses” or partial associations as “…correlation was identified for only one gender” [28]. For instance, substance misuse has been associated with problematic gaming in adolescent boys, with nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis usage twice as high compared to their non-problematic gaming peers (Van Rooij et al., Reference Van Rooij, Kuss, Griffiths, Shorter, Schoenmakers and Van De Mheen2014). It is possible that our findings may have been different had we included reviews in other languages. Loot boxes are defined as ‘in-game purchases consisting of a virtual container that awards players with items and modifications based on chance’ (Rouse, Reference Rouse2018). Overall, no review satisfied all the criteria we used to identify reliable reviews, so we could not address this research question. 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