Direct (Clear and Compelling) Evidence of What Students Are Learning Ratings of student skills by field experience supervisors Scores and pass rates on appropriate licensure/ certification exams (e.g., Praxis, NLN) or other published tests (e.g., Major Field Tests) that assess key learning outcomes • Student reflections on their values, attitudes and beliefs, if developing those are intended outcomes of the course or program (C) Indirect Evidence of Student Learning (Signs that Students Are Probably Learning, But Exactly What or How Much They Are Learning is Less Clear) • Course grades (C) Indirect measures can provide information about the respondent’s perception of student learning. Evidence of Learning: Direct and Indirect Measures. These characteristics may be specific to the students, such as students’ own accounts of their learning, or they may be reflective of the institution as a whole, as in the case of graduation rates. Aim for a variety of types of evidence, or multiple data sets, to provide a richer picture of the learning. To make the process easier and more efficient, instructors can now digitally capture and track direct evidence of student learning… Many faculty and instructors already evaluate students’ learning using direct measures (scores, ratings, grades, etc. Indirect evidence alone is insufficient to support conclusions about or recommendations for program effectiveness or student learning. %%EOF To make supportable claims about program effectiveness and student learning, gather and analyze for multiple lines of direct evidence, complemented by relevant lines of indirect evidence. Direct evidence is required. Direct vs. The total (direct and indirect) effects of leadership on student learning account for about a quarter of total school effects. Some Direct evidence, i.e. Indirect assessment is gathering information through means other than looking at actual samples of student work. 2. Reflections by instructors on student learning and teaching methodologies End-of-course grades4 Indirect evidence should always be complemented by direct evidence. Examples of direct and indirect student learning Direct evidence. • Student reflections on their values, attitudes and beliefs, if developing those are intended outcomes of the course or program (C) Indirect Evidence of Student Learning (Signs that Students Are Probably Learning, But Exactly What or How Much They Are Learning is Less Clear) • Course grades Indirect Assessment refers to any method of collecting data that requires reflection on student learning, skills, or behaviors, rather than a demonstration of it. Direct (Clear and Compelling) Evidence of What Students Are Learning Ratings of student skills by field experience supervisors Scores and pass rates on appropriate licensure/ certification exams (e.g., Praxis, NLN) or other published tests (e.g., Major Field Tests) that assess key learning outcomes Indirect Assessment Methods. Gather from required courses in which students are expected to demonstrate high levels of mastery of program goals for learning, Gather from required courses throughout curriculum. They provide tangible, visible and self-explanatory evidence of what students have and have not learned as a result of a course, program, or Student Learning Assessment: Options and Resources, Second Edition, 2007) If Indirect methods provide the perspectives of students, faculty or other people who are concerned with the course or program or o A possible weakness of direct measurement is that not everything can be demonstrated in a direct way, such as values, perceptions, feelings, and attitudes. Direct and Indirect Measures of Student Learning . These include capstone projects, senior theses, exhibits or performances (see below). Indirect evidence must be inferred through what students tell us, through things like surveys and interviews, or what faculty tell us through things like grades, or some student behaviors such as graduation or job placement. It is important to understand the distinction between direct and indirect evidence of student learning. While both types of evidence have a place in an assessment program, best practices suggest (and Middle States requires) at least some collection of direct evidence. After creating measurable student learning outcomes (SLOs), the next step is to develop direct and/or indirect measures that align with those SLOs and will provide evidence of the level of student learning the course/program has achieved. Strategies for Direct and Indirect Assessment of Student Learning Mary J. Allen, mallen@csub.edu SACS-COC Summer Institute July 28, 2008 Two Basic Ways to Assess Student Learning: 1. However, not all learning can be measured in a direct way. Evaluate whether or not the assessment aligns directly with a learning outcome. Some When selecting evidence for the current assessment cycle, consider the varied purposes of assessment. While evidence about leadership effects on student learning can be confusing to interpret, much of the existing research actually underestimates its effects. There are basically two kinds of evidence you can collect: direct and indirect. conduct direct assessments of student learning thr oughout a course using such techniques as exams, quizzes, demonstrations, and reports. Both are important, but indirect evidence by itself is insufficient. Direct and Indirect Measures of Student Learning Direct Measures Definition: Direct measures require students to demonstrate their knowledge and skills. 2. collection of direct and indirect evidence of student learning at multiple points in time an in various situations, using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods that are embedded in courses, programs and overall institutional processes. Indirect Assessment Methods. Direct assessment involves looking at actual samples of student work produced in our programs. They provide tangible, visible and self-explanatory evidence of what students have and have not learned as a … Collect multiple lines of, Student work drawn from culminating / capstone / senior-level courses, Art exhibitions, Design project presentations, Engineering senior design projects, Scholarly papers), Constructed-responses from exams or quizzes aligned to specific PLOs, Open-responses from exams or quizzes aligned to specific PLOs, Lab reports, problem sets, oral presentations, and / or simulations, Case study write-ups, lab reports, papers, oral presentations, debates, Critiques, reviews of journal articles, problem sets, product reviews, Self-reports of students’ perceptions of their own learning (e.g., program exit surveys). 199 0 obj <>stream Include indirect and direct assessments as well as formative and summative assessments. references. Direct and Indirect Measures. They are cumulative and often reveal what students have learned at the end of a unit or the end of a course. Direct (Clear and Compelling) Evidence of What Students Are Learning Ratings of student skills by field experience supervisors Scores and pass rates on appropriate licensure/ certification exams … They provide tangible, visible and self-explanatory evidence of what students have and have not learned as a … Direct measures of assessment require students to demonstrate what they have learned through an instrument, like a paper, demonstration, portfolio, performance, or achievement test. Ratings of student skills by their field experience supervisors. �0��� ��L�ZbћԊ�x�#�@�����DPz��ffvf)��P� �Y�k�a���b8�#���F�T�Wl���X���J8�D(L��u��Aht�t��,�D��w�(Y����y(�Z� �U%�Id�D�)pT�׵���{�. Direct evidence of student learning comes in the form of a student product or performance that can be evaluated. Some outcomes (e.g., attitudes) can be assessed only through surveys, interviews or focus groups. Both are important, but indirect evidence by itself is insufficient. These include capstone projects, senior theses, exhibits or performances (see below). Indirect Assessment refers to any method of collecting data that requires reflection on student learning, skills, or behaviors, rather than a demonstration of it. Direct evidence of student learning comes in the form of a student product or performance that can be evaluated. [Show full abstract] how the programme intended learning outcomes (PILOs) of the GE curriculum have been met through both direct and indirect evidence. Office of Undergraduate Education | Center for Educational Effectiveness Student Learning Assessment: Options and Resources, Second Edition, 2007) Gather Step 1: Identify Types & Sources of Evidence, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Design Step 2: Establish Standards and Targets, Design Step 4: Plan for Equity and Consistency, Gather Step 2: Decide How Much Data You Need, Principles of Good Practice for Assessing Student Learning, Curious Aggies: Student-Led Assessment Research, Recruitment: Graduate Student Assessment Researcher, Direct evidence is tangible, observable, and self-explanatory. Ratings of student skills by their field experience supervisors. Direct (Clear and Compelling) Evidence of What Students Are Learning • Ratings of student skills by field experience supervisors • •Scores and pass rates on appropriate licensure/ certification exams (e.g., Praxis, NLN) or other published tests (e.g., Major Aim for a variety of types of evidence, or multiple data sets, to provide a richer picture of the learning. h�bbd``b`Z $���0�$خ��B �j "X@�� �(�� h�b``�g``��������01G�?30�20h,gqa�a�Β����K7�8���kg��F���n�Mab`4����l������ j�� In addition to representative samples of student work, it should include the performance criteria for judging that work and evidence of student self reflection or evaluation. Direct assessment involves looking at actual samples of student work produced in our programs. "&����e"l����L� .#:���@� h� of what students can do, which can be very strong evidence of student learning. 1 Appendix F: Direct and Indirect Evidence of Student Learning 1. C = evidence suitable for course -level as well as program-level student learning . Provides useful insight and contextual information to support inferences about student learning. Direct evidence of student learning is: tangible, observable, and self-explanatory. Indirect assessment is gathering information through means other than looking at actual samples of student work. Indirect measures of assessment provide opportunities for students to reflect on their … However, as evidence of student learning, indirect measures are not as strong as direct measures because assumptions must be made about how to interpret an indirect report. Direct evidence of student learning is: tangible, observable, and self-explanatory. Educators use indirect and direct assessment methods to determine what students have learned; identify weaknesses in skills development, ... quality of learning, and perhaps can help guide you in making improvements in the course, it does not provide specific evidence of student learning and meeting teaching objectives. hޜN� These methods are used to provide adequate feedback to the program to identify strengths and weaknesses (Maki, 2004). Indirect evidence is the perception, opinion, or attitude of students (or others). Ideally, a program collects both types. Portfolios are particularly beneficial when the goal is to provide comprehensive evidence of students’ learning and development over time. Direct evidence. – Direct assessment involves students doing something—that is demonstrating the extent of their knowledge / abilities of a given learning outcome – Indirect assessment involves perception of that ability / knowledge • Perceptions help guide us, but they complement our direct knowledge of student ability, not replace it. An indirect method is based upon a report of perceived student learning. Definition of InDirect Methods Indirect evidence of student achievement requires that faculty infer actual student abilities, knowledge, and values rather than observe direct evidence of learning or achievement. All involve the evaluation of actual student performance vis-à-vis stated learning outcomes. Direct vs. In other words, direct evidence of learning indicates what students can demonstrate, as well as the degree to which students have moved toward mastery of faculty-identified expectations. Methods that pair direct and indirect methods are most valuable because: Research indicates that students are not always able to accurately self-assess their learning, so the use of indirect measures alone may be inaccurate. Reflections by instructors on student learning and teaching methodologies End-of-course grades4 Indirect evidence should always be complemented by direct evidence. Direct – The assessment is based on an analysis of student behaviors or products in which they demonstrate how well they have mastered learning outcomes. The types of evidence used in learning outcomes assessment are characterized as direct or indirect. The analyses of six tenth-grade classrooms suggested that the teachers’ direct instructional support was strongly associated with their students’ use of self-regulation strategies, as well as with their students’ learning motivation, while teachers’ indirect activation of SRL, measured as the degree of autonomy, was negatively associated with their students’ reading performances (Lau 2012). Copyright © The Regents of the University of California, Davis campus. Maybe “observed” and “inferred” might be better terms for direct and indirect evidence of student learning. Within a course, summative assessment includes the system for calculating individual student grades. 0 All programs are required to collect direct evidence of student learning for each program learning outcome. All rights reserved. Evidence obtained to measure student learning can be either direct or indirect. Indirect assessment: involves a report about learning rather than a direct demonstration of learning. Direct evidence of student learning is tangible, visible, and measureable and tends to be more compelling evidence of exactly what students have and have not learned. Many faculty and instructors already evaluate students’ learning using direct measures (scores, ratings, grades, etc. A portfolio is a systematic and organized collection of student work selected to demonstrate to others direct evidence of students’ efforts, achievements, and progress over time. ); however, linking student work directly to learning outcomes, and tracking, analyzing and using the data can be complex and time-consuming. Direct evidence can be observed through student products and performances. Instruments in which students demonstrate what they have achieved or learned related to explicitly stated learning outcomes. endstream endobj startxref Definition of InDirect Methods Indirect evidence of student achievement requires that faculty infer actual student abilities, knowledge, and values rather than observe direct evidence of learning or achievement. 193 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<0C9F108938441E44AEBB4EC0C5B26D04><1440C470C463B347AE96A1D0594EB10E>]/Index[176 24]/Info 175 0 R/Length 82/Prev 86182/Root 177 0 R/Size 200/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Direct assessment: requires the student to demonstrate the extent of their learning by doing something, such as responding to a test question or completing a homework assignment. Indirect methods provide the perspectives of students, faculty or other people who are concerned with the course or program or collection of direct and indirect evidence of student learning at multiple points in time an in various situations, using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods that are embedded in courses, programs and overall institutional processes. These techniques provide a sampling of what students know and/or can do and provide strong evidence of student learning. Indirect evidence is the perception, opinion, or attitude of students (or others). Methods of measuring student learning are often characterized as summative or formative assessments: 1. Scores and pass rates on appropriate licensure/certification exams (e.g., Praxis, NCLEX) or other published tests (e.g., Major Field Tests) that assess key learning outcomes. In other words, direct evidence of learning indicates what students can demonstrate, as well as the degree to which students have moved toward mastery of faculty-identified expectations. Academic Assessment TeamEmail: assessment@ucdavis.edu. • Student reflections on their values, attitudes and beliefs, if developing those are intended outcomes of the course or program (C) Indirect Evidence of Student Learning (Signs that Students Are Probably Learning, But Exactly What or How Much They Are Learning is Less Clear) • Course grades 1 Appendix F: Direct and Indirect Evidence of Student Learning 1. The program assessment process involves gathering evidence of student learning. Examples of direct and indirect student learning Direct evidence. Direct and Indirect Measures of Student Learning Direct Measures Definition: Direct measures require students to demonstrate their knowledge and skills. Direct and Indirect Methods of Assessment In order to gather evidence of student learning, assessment efforts are categorized as direct and indirect measures. Direct evidence… Direct evidence is required. student knowledge or skills. Direct Measures . indirect. Direct and Indirect Measures of Student Learning Direct Measures Definition: Direct measures require students to demonstrate their knowledge and skills. Direct (Clear and Compelling) Evidence of What Students Are Learning Ratings of student skills by field experience supervisors Scores and pass rates on appropriate licensure/ certification exams … %PDF-1.6 %���� endstream endobj 177 0 obj <>/Metadata 4 0 R/Pages 174 0 R/StructTreeRoot 11 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 178 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 179 0 obj <>stream To make the process easier and more efficient, instructors can now digitally capture and track direct evidence of student learning… ); however, linking student work directly to learning outcomes, and tracking, analyzing and using the data can be complex and time-consuming. Direct evidence of student learning is tangible, visible, and measureable and tends to be more compelling evidence of exactly what students have and have not learned. Scores and pass rates on appropriate licensure/certification exams (e.g., Praxis, NCLEX) or other published tests (e.g., Major Field Tests) that assess key learning outcomes. Formative assessment - any means by which students receive input and gu… Direct and Indirect measures or methods are the second and third rows, respectively, on the ISU PRAAP Rubric.. 176 0 obj <> endobj There are basically two types of assessment [Show full abstract] how the programme intended learning outcomes (PILOs) of the GE curriculum have been met through both direct and indirect evidence. Summative assessments - tests, quizzes, and other graded course activities that are used to measure student performance. Make sure the measurement is sustainable and reasonable in terms of time and resources, both for the students and the instructors (e.g., grading, response time, and methods). iv as a key to the successful implementation of large-scale reform. 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